Genet Dadi1* Mengistu Urge2 and Tsegay Teklebrhan2
1Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Sinana Agricultural Research Research Center, Bale-Robe, Ethiopia
2Department of Animal and Range Science, Haramaya University P.O.Box 138,Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
Received: 09 June, 2017; Accepted: 26 September, 2017; Published: 27 September, 2017
Genet Dadi, Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Sinana Agricultural Research Research Center, Bale-Robe, Ethiopia, E-mail:
Dadi G, Urge M, Teklebrhan T (2017) Assessment of Commercial Beef Cattle Fattening Practices and performance in East Shoa Zone. Int J Agric Sc Food Technol 3(3): 067-076. DOI: 10.17352/2455-815X.000025
© 2017 Dadi G, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Beef cattle; Commercial; Performance
The study was conducted in Adama, Lome and Adami-Tulu districts of East Shoa Zone of Oromia Regional State to assess commercial fattening practices, and to evaluate performance of commercial fattening. Multi stage sampling procedure was employed for the survey study. The questionnaire based formal survey was conducted using semi structured questioners by interviewing a total of 45feedlot operators purposively selected from the three districts and both quantitative and qualitative data on beef cattle fattening systems were obtained. For the monitoring work nine farms among those used for interview were selected for the purpose of monitoring animals’ performance during fattening period. Eight Animals from each farm were randomly selected from the farms based on age, initial body weight and body condition. The study revealed that the major criteria for selecting animals to purchase for feedlot fattening includes breed type, physical appearance and/or frame size, age, health and initial price body condition, coat color, horn size were the top priority and major breeds used was Boran breeds with an age between 3-6 years old. The feed resources used by commercial cattle fattening include crop residues and agro-industrial by products feeds. The average total weight gain and average daily weight gain of animals recorded in 90 days of fattening was significantly higher (P<0.05) for large (97.7±1.16;1.09±0.01) and medium (97.58±1.16; 1.09±0.01) as compared to small scale (91.04±1.169 kg;1.01±0.01kg) commercial fattening. It is concluded that the dependence on only Borana breed may affect the efficiency of the fattening industry by creating supply shortage and also it depletes the breed population. Moreover, the Limited feed availability, high price of supplementary feed, market fluctuation of fattened cattle, disease out breaks, and water shortage are the most challenges faced by the sectors and needs to be addressed in the study area.
Livestock and meat products have been among the fastest growing components of the global agriculture and food industry. The livestock sector has been contributing a considerable portion to the economy of Ethiopia, and still promising to rally round the economic development of the country. The total cattle population for the country is estimated to be about 56.71 million heads . The sector also plays a significant role in the national economy which contributes about 47% of the agricultural GDP, 15% of the total GDP and has generated an estimated 31% of the total agricultural employment . Live animals and livestock products such as meat, hides, and skins are the third major export accounting for 11% of the export revenue (Hurrissa, 2009).
Among the various livestock production activities, beef cattle fattening activity is one of the potential sources for employment opportunity and to increase the volume and quality of meat produced and to alleviate poverty in the country [3-5]. Cattle fattening has gained prominence as an important business project of the livestock industry in Ethiopia to make use of cheap, plentiful farm by-products . Moreover, fattening offers opportunity to exploit the vast cattle and meet export market in the region as well as Ethiopia’s domestic market . The fattening activity can be undertaken at any level of livestock value chain ranging from small holder farmers rearing livestock for multiple functions , and small scale commercial fattening to large scale commercial fattening (Tomy, 2003 [4,9,10] who export live animals and supply fattened animals directly to abattoirs concocting meat for inland and international markets.
In recent years, market oriented beef production system has been gradually emerging concurrent to the increase in both domestic and export market demand for cattle meet in Ethiopia. Market oriented agricultural production system requires intensification in management or production system (Azage et al., 2011). The Government is also trying to expand the sector by motivating producers’ in order to meet the growing demand. As a result, meat processing factories and export abattoirs are increasing in number and export earnings from the sector are rising (MORD, 2008) . However, inadequate supplies of export quality livestock in terms of the required age and body weight for slaughter, lack of information on efficient way of feed resources utilization for quick feedlot finishing, and the biological response of indigenous cattle to feedlot fattening are remained to be a bottleneck to increase domestic per capita meat consumption and export [10,12].
As in all commercial enterprises in cattle fattening enterprises, the main purpose is to make a profit. From this point of view, evaluating the performances of cattle fattening enterprises gains importance in terms of the continuation of business efficiencies. Performance in general is a concept that quantitatively or qualitatively determines the gains at the end of a purposeful and scheduled activity. In other words, performance is the level of achievement to reach the planned output level .
Currently, the government encourages the emerging of commercial fattening practices and support establishments of the sector in an investment form in the study area. However, there is limited information about their utilization of available feed resources, husbandry of commercial feedlot and cattle fattening performance under commercial cattle fattening practices. Therefore, it is very important to investigate the overall activities and performance in the sector to design appropriate technologies for improvement of beef production. The current study is aimed to assess how commercial feed lot cattle fattening systems can provide sustainable and adequate live animal supply which can meet the demand for domestic consumption and export markets and with the following specific objectives:
To assess commercial beef cattle practice in the in East Shoa Zone
To evaluate the performance of Beef cattle fattening under commercial feed
Material and Methods
Description of the study area
The study was conducted in Oromia Regional state, East Shoa Zone, Adama, Lome and Adami-Tulu- JIdo-Kombolcha Districts. Adama district is located at altitude of 1400 – 2700 m a. s. l and it receives uni- modal rainfall with annual amount of 600 – 1200mm and the average temperature varies 17oC - 34oC. (ESZARDO, 2015). Adami-Tulu- JIdo Kombolcha District is located at the altitude of 1650m a. s. l. It receives an annual rainfall amount of 500-760 mm and its average ambient temperature varies from 12.7oC– 27oC East (ESZARDO, 2015). Lome district is located at the altitude of 1604-2364 m.a.s.l. It receives rain fall with annual amount of 1065mm and the average temperature varies 18-28.7oC (ESZARDO, 2015) (Figure 1).
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