Erkie Asmare*, Dereje Tewabe, Birhan Mohamed and Beniyam Hailu
Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute, Bahir-Dar Fisheries and Other Aquatic Life Research Center P.O.Box 794, Bahir-Dar, Ethiopia
Received: 26 October, 2015; Accepted: 20 November, 2015; Published: 23 November, 2015
Erkie Asmare Beyene, Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute, Bahir-Dar Fisheries and Other Aquatic Life Research Center, Bahir-Dar, Ethiopia, Tel: +251 918271253; E-mail:
Asmare E, Tewabe D, Mohamed B, Hailu B (2015) Pre-Scaling Up of Solar Tent Fish Drier in Northern and North. Int J Aquac Fishery Sci 1(2): 048-053. DOI: 10.17352/2455-8400.000009
© 2015Asmare E, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Solar tent; Hygiene; Organoleptic; Price for dried fish
Solar tent fish drier (STFD) reduce post-harvest losses, thereby ensuring continuous availability of cheap animal protein. This study aimed to: (1) minimize post harvest losses by improving the shelf life dried fish; (2) enhance technology multiplication and dissemination system; (3) create clear insight about the technology implementation. This study was carried out in the northern and northwestern part of Lake Tana from June, 2014 to June, 2015. Purposive sampling methods were used to select Dembiya, Alefa and Gondar zuriya districts with their respective locality. Transact walk, interview, focus group discussion, and stakeholder consultation were used to collect qualitative data. Quantitative data were collected from 38 sample households by preparing structured questionnaire. Likert scale scoring, descriptive statistics such as percentage, mean, and standard deviations were used for analysis. The age structure of the sample households shows an average of 33.97 years and 44.7% of the respondents were female. Sample households average family size is 4.6 and the distance from the home to the main road takes 63.89 minutes of walk. The solar tent fish drier was prepared from readily available materials such as; wood, white and black plastic, nail, rope and mesh wire with a size of 2meter height and 1.7 meter length. For this activity, six tents were prepared for three districts and fish species selected for the activity was labeobarbus intermedius. The salt amount used was 60gram iodine salt per liter in brine form. The weight of dried fish becomes stable and dried well in the third day; with total moisture losses of 60%. Drying fish by solar tent fish dryer enables to produce hygienic, high quality, organoleptically good dried fish with low cost. By drying quickly it is possible to reduce post harvest losses thereby ensuring continuous availability of cheap animal protein. Absence of better price for fish dried by solar tent is the main challenge for further adoption. Promotion and market linkage for the quality dried fish; continuous support and follow up are very important to sustain the technology.
Fish provide the main source of animal protein to about one billion people globally. Fisheries are an important part of food security, particularly for many poor people in developing countries. In low income food deficient countries, they make up 22% of animal protein consumption overall . Fish may also be the sole accessible and/or affordable source of animal protein for poor households in urban or peri-urban areas. Fish is, however, highly susceptible to deterioration without any preservative or processing measures .
Fish is an important food item that has significant socioeconomic contribution as a source of income, employment and cheap protein for marginal people in developing countries including Ethiopia. Lake Tana is one of the major fisheries in Ethiopia . Small fish are especially important for poor consumers, as they can be purchased in small quantities at low cost. Even though the estimated production from Ethiopia commercial fishery is about 51,481tones per year, the actual catch were 15,389tones per year in 2001. FAO estimates fish post harvest losses is among the highest for all commodities; where Ethiopia losses one third of the annual production, which is about 5130tones per year [4,6].
In Lake Tana fisheries there are ten districts that have a potential for fishing, among these districts Gondar zuriya, Dembiya and Alefa districts have taken the main share. The amount of fish caught is high in these areas but due to market distance and discouraging price for dried fish the fishers couldn't obtain the expected benefit. The post harvest losses in the study area are the main challenge due to non-existence of appropriate preservative methods and expensiveness of other drying technologies. In Gondar zuriya, Dembiya and Alefa woredas/districts the main fish preservative methods are sun drying and salting.
Sun drying and salting still has many limitations, such as long period of drying during cloudy climate. In areas of high humidity, it is often difficult to dry the fish to low moisture content . Sun drying of fish often results in low quality as a result of slow drying, insect infestation and contamination from air borne dust etc [3,5]. For getting better quality-dried fish, it is very essential to use improved methods of fish drying. Moreover, it is also important to maintain required hygiene during the different phases of fish drying by using solar tent fish drier [5,6]. In view of this, the present study aimed to: (1) minimize post harvest losses by improving the shelf life dried fish; (2) enhance technology multiplication and dissemination system; (3) create clear insight about the technology implementation.
Materials and Methods
Site selection and providing training
This study was carried out in the northern and northwest part of Lake Tana. The study areas were selected based on the existence of surplus fish production and fish drying experience. Based on the budget and time we execute the activities in a cluster approach. The sites were selected based on their representativeness of other districts.
The study areas were selected in purposive sampling methods: at the first stage Dembya, Alefa, and Gondar zuriya woredas were selected purposively. At the second stage two kebeles at each woredas (Mangie and Gurandie from Dembya woreda; Esey-Debir and Dengel-ber from Alefa wored; Enfranze and Firkha-Dangurie from Gondar zuriya woreda) were selected and finally fishers that have drying experience were selected for scaling up the technology.
The activity was conducted in participatory approach. Fishers' teams were established (6 groups) on village based clustering and 6 drying tents were provided to the groups. Practical and theoretical trainings were provided to all groups to make them aware of for preparing the tent from readily available materials. To facilitate the pre scale up activities, focal persons were assigned from each of the groups.
Fishing and drying
Samples of the fish species labeobarbus intermedius were filleted using knife, weighed, and soaked in salt solution 60 gram salt dissolved in one liter of water as recommended by Assefa T. et al. (2008). Weight after drying has been taken to obtain the calculated weight losses.
Method of data collection
Data were collected using data sheet for socioeconomic and social data. Socio-economic researchers collect social data using PRA tools such as focus group discussion and individual interview. Structured and open ended questionnaires were prepared and filled. Information collected were: availability of inputs, ease of management and operation of the tents; group interaction and skill exchange during utilization of the tents, labor utilization, marketability of the product, benefit gained; personal opinions and observation on their feelings, observations, suggestions, and other's views on the tents; perception and attitude towards the technology.
Methods of data analysis
Descriptive statistics such as percentage, mean, standard deviations were also used. Social analysis such as perception and attitude of farmers and stakeholders towards the technologies were analyzed by using likert scale scoring. To know stakeholders' level of agreement on different aspects of the technology score were given: strongly agree = 5; agree = 4; indifferent = 3; disagree = 2; strongly disagree = 1. Sum score were calculated by using a formula = frq. strongly agree*5 + frq. agree*4 + frq. indifferent*3 + frq. disagree*2 + frq. strongly disagree*1; where frq is frequency. Finally the average score were derived by dividing sum score to total sample size.
Responsibilities sharing and exit strategy
The main stakeholders in the activity and training were: local fishers, woreda and kebele fish experts, woreda agriculture experts and development agent, kebele administrators, environmental protection experts, trade and transport (market linkage and promotion) expert, and small enterprise developments (business development service) expert.
To secure the technologies sustainability responsibilities were shared among stakeholder. In addition all trained fisher groups are promised to prepare solar tent fish dryer at their home by teaching and helping untrained neighbours. There were sharing of tasks among stakeholders to further disseminate technology in the future by continuous follow up, support and consultation.
Results and Discussions
Demographic characteristics of sample households
This study was based on the information collected from a total of 38 sample households and all of these are participate in fishery sector in a full time, seasonal and part time basis. The age structure of the sample households shows an average of 33.97 years. This implies that most of the respondents have had adequate experience on fishing activity. Sample households average family size is 4.6 and the average distance from the home to the main road is 63.89 minutes of walk. This shows fisher travels for an average of one hour to sale their catch to the nearest market.
Inaccessibility of road to sale catches exacerbates the spoilage rate and increase post-harvest loses. Post harvest processing is operated by both men and women; during the study 55.3% of the respondents were men.
The education status of the respondents involved in fishing activities can be described as illiterate except the 47.7% of literate respondents. This indicates that the fishing activity is open not only for poor and illiterate communities but also for educated peoples.
The main means of livelihood in the study area is agriculture (cropping) activity. Of the total households, 36.8% of them participate mainly in fishing activities. This infers that fishing is the best means of income generating mechanism besides cropping and livestock rearing (Table 3).
Most of the respondents participate seasonally and full time which accounts 36.8% of each. Farmers in the study area participate in fishing seasonally, besides livestock rearing and crop productions. During peak seasons (June to November) farmers mainly focus on agricultural activities like crop production and livestock. However, it doesn't mean that seasonal participants don't go to fishing during pick seasons; because during holyday and religious day (ploughing is not allowed) they go to fishing for their consumption. On the other hand, farmers who have a certain amount of farm land are part time participants as supplementary for income generation.
Training and characteristics of dried fish
The training was held in Dembiya and Gondar Zuriya woreda with a total of 107 participants. With these participants 35.5% of them were female participants. The study areas are known in their production potential but market problems and non-existence of appropriate fish preservative methods exacerbate fish post harvest loses. The training was composed of practical and theoretical components to enhance the stakeholder's knowledge about the technology Figure 1.
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