School of Biotechnology, Adamas University, Kolkata, India
Received: 01 February, 2016; Accepted: 26 April, 2016; Published: 28 April, 2016
Shibsekhar Roy, Asst. Professor, School of Biotechnology, Adamas University, Kolkata, India, E-mail:
Roy S (2016) Nano-Technological Approaches to Improve the Efficiency of Bio-Assays. Glob J Biotechnol Biomater Sci 1(1): 023-027.
© 2016 Roy S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
One of the biggest issues in today's healthcare industry is to find a very fast yet effective diagnostic platform, which is suitable for our busy lifestyle without compromising the detection efficiency. The major requirements of an efficient diagnostic platform can be summarized as minimum sample requirement, least reagent requirement, having options of multiple tests in a single platform, high through put analysis and last but never the least a non-expensive sample run. The largest contributor of the bio-assay industry is protein based chromogenic bio-assays, which depends on strong antigen-antibody interaction and high emissive properties of reporter dye molecule attached to the antigen. In reality, this apparently simple looking reaction system has to face several difficulties before an appreciable signal is received by the photo-detector to give an analysable dataset. With the rapid emergence of nanotechnology during last few decades, some of the critical problems have been solved [1-5]. However, a large number of unresolved issues still remain there. This editorial will briefly address some of those critical issues and how they have been tackled by nanotechnology. The two-most tunable variables of a bio-assay platform are the reporter molecules and the sensing platform as described by the Figure 1. We will describe both the issues separately in the next sections.
- Wang Y, Peng X, Shi J, Tang X, Jiang, J, et al. (2012) Highly selective fluorescent chemosensor for Zn2+ derived from inorganic-organic hybrid magnetic core/shell Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles. Nanoscale Res Lett 7: 86.
- Rampazzo E, Boschi F, Bonacchi S, Juris R, Montalti M, et al. (2012) Multicolor core/shell silica nanoparticles for in vivo and ex vivo imaging. Nanoscale 4: 824−830.
- Lee CS, Chang HH, Jung J, Lee NA, Song NW, et al. (2012) A novel fluorescent nanoparticle composed of fluorene copolymer core and silica shell with enhanced photo stability. Colloids Surf B 91: 219−225.
- Pei X, Zhao Y, Zhao X, Xu, H, Chen B et al. (2009) Multiplex chemiluminescent immunoassay based on silica colloidal crystal beads. J Nanosci. 381 Nanotechnol 9: 6320−6325.
- Wang Y, Liu B (2009) Conjugated polymer as a signal amplifier for novel silica nanoparticle-based fluoroimmunoassay. Biosens Bioelectron 24: 3293−3298.
- Luo S, Zhang E, Su Y, Cheng T, Shi C (2011) A review of NIR dyes in cancer targeting and imaging. Biomaterials 32: 7127-7138.
- Roy S, Woolley R, MacCraith BD, McDonagh C (2010) Fluorescence lifetime analysis and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy elucidate the internal architecture of fluorescent silica nanoparticles. Langmuir 26: 13741−13746.
- Roy S, Dixit CK, Woolley R, O'Kennedy R, McDonagh C (2012) Synthesis and characterization of a Noble metal Enhanced Optical Nanohybrid (NEON): a high brightness detection platform based on a dye-doped silica nanoparticle. Langmuir 28: 8244-8250.
- Roy S, Woolley R, MacCraith BD, McDonagh C (2010) Fluorescence lifetime analysis and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy elucidate the internal architecture of fluorescent silica nanoparticles. Langmuir 26: 13741-13746.
- Burns A, Ow H, Wiesner U (2006) Fluorescent core-shell silica nanoparticles: towards "Lab on a Particle" architectures for nanobiotechnology. Chem Soc Rev 35: 1028-1042.
- Geddes CD, Lakowicz JR. J (2002) Editorial: Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence. Fluoresc 12: 121−129.
- Geddes CD, Parfenov A, Lakowicz JR (2003) Photodeposition of silver can result in metal-enhanced fluorescence. Appl Spectrosc 57: 526−531.
- Lakowicz JR, Shen Y, D'Auria S, Malicka, J, Fang J, et.al. (2002) Radiative decay engineering. 2. Effects of Silver Island films on fluorescence intensity, lifetimes, and resonance energy transfer. Anal Biochem 301: 261−277.
- Geißler D, Hildebrandt N (2016) Recent developments in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) diagnostics using quantum dots. Anal Bioanal Chem [Epub ahead of print].
- So MK, Xu CJ, Loening AM, Gambhir SS, Rao JH (2006) Self-illuminating quantum dot conjugates for in vivo imaging. Nat Biotechnol 24: 339–343.
- Radenkovic D, Kobayashi H, Remsey-Semmelweis E, Seifalian AM (2016) Quantum dot nanoparticle for optimization of breast cancer diagnostics and therapy in a clinical setting. Nanomedicine 16: 30005-30013.
- Ming K, Kim J, Biondi MJ, Syed A, Chen K, Lam A, et al. (2015) Integrated quantum dot barcode smartphone optical device for wireless multiplexed diagnosis of infected patients. ACS Nano 9: 3060–3074.
- Noor MO, Krull UJ (2014) Camera-based ratiometric fluorescence transduction of nucleic acid hybridization with reagentless signal amplification on a paper-based platform using immobilized quantum dots as donors. Anal Chem 86: 10331–10339.
- Algar WR, Wegner D, Huston AL, Blanco-Canosa JB, Stewart MH, et al. (2012) Quantum dots as simultaneous acceptors and donors in time-gated Förster resonance energy transfer relays: characterization and biosensing. J Am Chem Soc134: 1876–1891.
- Freeman R, Liu XQ, Willner I (2011) Amplified multiplexed analysis of DNA by the exonuclease III-catalyzed regeneration of the target DNA in the presence of functionalized semiconductor quantum dots. Nano Lett 11: 4456–4461.
- Algar WR, Malanoski AP, Susumu K, Stewart MH, Hildebrandt N, et al. (2012) Multiplexed tracking of protease activity using a single color of quantum dot vector and a time-gated Förster resonance energy transfer relay. Anal Chem 84: 10136–10146.
- Geißler D, Stufler S, Löhmannsröben HG, Hildebrandt N (2013) Six-color time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer for ultrasensitive multiplexed biosensing. J Am Chem Soc 135: 1102–1109.
- Claussen JC, Hildebrandt N, Susumu K, Ancona MG, Medintz IL (2014) Complex logic functions implemented with quantum dot bionanophotonic circuits. ACS Appl Mater Interf 6: 3771–3778.
- Loo AH, Sofer Z, Bouša D, Ulbrich P, Bonanni A, et al. (2016) Carboxylic Carbon Quantum Dots as a Fluorescent Sensing Platform for DNA Detection. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8: 1951-1957.
- Guo Z, Zhang Z, Zhang W, Zhou L, Li H, et al. (2014) ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6: 20700-20708.
- Wang L, Wang X, Bhirde A, Cao J, Zeng Y, et al. (2014) Adv Healthc Mater 3: 1203-1209.
- Ding C, Zhu A, Tian Y (2014) Functional surface engineering of C-dots for fluorescent biosensing and in vivo bioimaging. Acc Chem Res 47: 20-30.
- Chen X, Peng D, Ju Q, Wang F (2015) Photon upconversion in core-shell nanoparticles. Chem Soc Rev 44: 1318-1330.
- Zheng W, Huang P, Tu D, Ma E, Zhu H, et al. (2015) Lanthanide-doped upconversion nano-bioprobes: electronic structures, optical properties, and biodetection. Chem Soc Rev 44: 1379-1415.
- Wang C, Cheng L, Liu Z (2013) Upconversion nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy and other cancer therapeutics. Theranostics 3: 317-330.
- Li X, Zhao D, Zhang F (2013) Multifunctional upconversion-magnetic hybrid nanostructured materials: synthesis and bioapplications. Theranostics 3: 292-305.
- Cheng L, Wang C, Liu Z (2013) Upconversion nanoparticles and their composite nanostructures for biomedical imaging and cancer therapy. Nanoscale 5: 23-37.
- Berg A, Yazdi S, Nowzari A, Storm K, Jain V, et al. (2016) Radial Nanowire Light-Emitting Diodes in the (AlxGa1-x)yIn1-yP Material System. Nano Lett 16: 656-662.
- Cheng R, Li D, Zhou H, Wang C, Yin A, et al. (2014) Electroluminescence and photocurrent generation from atomically sharp WSe2/MoS2 heterojunction p-n diodes. Nano Lett 14: 5590-5597.
- Wawrzynczyk D, Bednarkiewicz A, Nyk M, Strek W, Samoc M (2013) Ligand-dependent luminescence of ultra-small Eu3+-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles. J Nanopart Res 15: 1707.
- Song S, Jeong J, Chung SH, Jeong SM, Choi B (2012) Electroluminescent devices with function of electro-optic shutter. Opt Express 20: 21074-21082.
- Xie S, Yuan R, Chai Y, Bai L, Yuan Y, et al. (2012) Label-free electrochemical aptasensor for sensitive thrombin detection using layer-by-layer self-assembled multilayers with toluidine blue-graphene composites and gold nanoparticles. Talanta 98: 7-13.
- Su H, Yuan R, Chai Y, Mao L, Zhuo Y (2011) Ferrocenemonocarboxylic-HRP@Pt nanoparticles labeled RCA for multiple amplification of electro-immunosensing. Biosens Bioelectron 26: 4601-4604.
- Mao L, Yuan R, Chai Y, Zhuo Y, Jiang W (2011) Potential controlling highly-efficient catalysis of wheat-like silver particles for electrochemiluminescence immunosensor labeled by nano-Pt@Ru and multi-sites biotin/streptavidin affinity. Analyst 136: 1450-1455.
- Lee B, Roh S, Park J (2009) Current status of micro- and nano-structured optical fiber sensors. Opt Fiber Technol 15: 209-221.
- Svedendahl M, Chen S, Dmitriev A, Kall M (2009) Refractometric Sensing Using Propagating versus Localized Surface Plasmons: A Direct Comparison. Nano Lett 9: 4428-4433.
- Das G, Mecarini F, Angelis FD, Prasciolu M, Liberale C, et al. (2008) Attomole (amol) myoglobin Raman detection from plasmonic nanostructures. Microelectron Eng 85: 1282-1285.
- Hiep HM, Yoshikawa H, Tamiya E (2010) Interference localized surface plasmon resonance nanosensor tailored for the detection of specific biomolecular interactions. Anal. Chem 82: 1221-1227.
- Lim DK, Jeon KS, Kim HM, Nam JM, Suh YD (2010) Nanogap-engineerable Raman-active nanodumbbells for single-molecule detection. Nat Mater 9: 60-67.
- Chen JIL, Chen Y, Ginger DS (2010) Plasmonic nanoparticle dimers for optical sensing of DNA in complex media. J Am Chem Soc 132: 9600-9601.
- Zou SL, Janel N, Schatz GC (2004) Silver nanoparticle array structures that produce remarkably narrow plasmon lineshapes. J Chem Phys 120: 10871-10875.
- Zou SL, Schatz GC (2004) Narrow plasmonic/photonic extinction and scattering line shapes for one and two dimensional silver nanoparticle arrays. J Chem Phys 121: 12606 -12612.
- Zhao LL, Kelly KL, Schatz GC (2003) The Extinction Spectra of Silver Nanoparticle Arrays: Influence of Array Structure on Plasmon Resonance Wavelength and Width. J Phys Chem B 107: 7343-7350.
- Nguyen M, Kanaev A, Sun X, Lacaze E, Lau-Truong S, et al. (2015) Tunable Electromagnetic Coupling in Plasmonic Nanostructures Mediated by Thermoresponsive Polymer Brushes. Langmuir 31: 12830-12837.
- Fletcher G, Arnold MD, Pedersen T, Keast VJ, Cortie MB (2015) Multipolar and dark-mode plasmon resonances on drilled silver nano-triangles. Opt Express 3: 18002-18013.
- Luo Y, Ma L, Zhang X, Liang A, Jiang Z (2015) SERS Detection of Dopamine Using Label-Free Acridine Red as Molecular Probe in Reduced Graphene Oxide/Silver Nanotriangle Sol Substrate. Nanoscale Res Lett 10: 937.
- Kühler P, Weber M, Lohmüller T (2014) Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of lipid molecules embedded in a bilayer membrane. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6: 8947-8952.
- Li Z, Guo Z, Ruan W, Song W, Wang X, et.al. (2014) Surface-enhanced fluorescent immunoassay on 2D silver nanotriangles array. Mol Biomol Spectrosc 24: 655-662.
- Kannadorai RK, Hegde G, Asundi A (2012) Fluorescence enhancement using silver nanotriangle arrays. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 12: 3873-3878.
- Boca-Farcau S, Potara M, Simon T, Juhem A, Baldeck P, et al. (2014) Folic acid-conjugated, SERS-labeled silver nanotriangles for multimodal detection and targeted photothermal treatment on human ovarian cancer cells. Mol Pharm 11: 391-399.