Hossein Mostafa Elbadawy1*, Alessandro Ruzza1, Mohit Parekh1, Davide Camposampiero1, Marina De Rossi1, Sandro Sbordone2, Stefano Ferrari1 and Diego Ponzin1
1International Centre for Ocular Physiopathology (ICOP), the Veneto Eye Bank Foundation Italy
2Eye department, Second University of Naples, Italy
Received: 29 December, 2014; Accepted: 21 February, 2015; Published: 23 February, 2015
ElbadawyH M, PhD, The Veneto Eye Bank Foundation,Via Paccagnella 11, Padiglione Rama, Mestre, Venice, 30174, Italy,Tel: 00393200937283; Fax: 0039 041 965 6471; Email:
Elbadawy HM, Ruzza A, Parekh M, Camposampiero D, De Rossi M, et al. (2015) Optical Coherence Tomography for the Identification of a Rare Case of Keratoconus in Albino Donor Cornea. J Clin Res Ophthalmol 2(2): 028-029. DOI: 10.17352/2455-1414.000014
© 2015 Elbadawy HM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Keratoconus; Neovascularisation; Albinism; Cornea
A 61 years old albino donor cornea shows an association of a triple corneal pathologies, keratoconus, oculocutaneous albinism and neovascularisation. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed severe signs of keratoconus, corneal vascularisation and the presence of central leukoma.Keratoconus and corneal vascularisation in albino patients is a unique association, however, the genetic basis of this combination is still unclear.
Keratoconus (KC) is a corneal ectatic disorder characterized by irregular corneal surface elevation, interruptions in the Bowman's layer, stromal thinning and degeneration [1-3]. Irregular astigmatism and myopia can cause severe visual impairment. Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a group of inherited disorders of melanin biosynthesis characterized by a generalized reduction in pigmentation of hair, skin and eyes. The inheritance pattern of albinism is autosomal recessive. Mutations in the tyrosinase [TYR] gene on chromosome 11 q14-q21 are reportedly common in most cases of OCA. The inheritance patterns of keratoconus are more complex than albinism due to the involvement of environmental factors in the incidence of KC. The most studied gene involved in KC is VSX1 gene, which is also involved in other corneal dystrophies . Clinical manifestations of albinism include various degrees of congenital nystagmus, hypopigmentation and refractive errors, however, the association of albinism, keratoconus and corneal vascularisation were not reported previously.
The corneas from a 61 years old albino donor were recovered by The Veneto Eye Bank Foundation, Italy. The donor had a history of positive hypercholesterolemia and hypertension, and silent for corneal disorders. The cause of death was myocardial infarction. The autopsy revealed cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial diffuse sclerosis, hypoxic myocardial damage, outbreak of lymphocytic infiltration between cardiac myocytes, in multivessel coronary atherosclerosis plaques with regional myocardial ischemia and coronary spasm with critical stenosis of the left anterior descending branch. Pulmonary congestion and haemorrhagic alveoli with sub-acutemultiorgan stasis were also evident.The patient was heterochromic with green right and blue left eyes. The deceased was pseudophakic with KC in both eyes (Figure 1a) and central leukoma (Figure 1b). Trypanblue® staining was positive in few areas of the epithelium and the stroma near the centre of the cornea. The cornea from the right eye was usedfor OCT scanning. An abrupt incline of the corneal surface near the centre and thinning of the central stroma was noted (Figure 2). Additionally, vascularisation was evident behind the stromal haze (Figure 1c). The endothelium had large wrinkles and the leukoma was concentrated in the thinnest area of the cornea.
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