PG Demonstrator, Department of Pedodontics, PGIDS Rohtak, India
Received: 04 March, 2017; Accepted: 20 March, 2017; Published: 22 March, 2017
Monika Rohilla, PG Demonstrator, Department of Pedodontics, PGIDS Rohtak, India, Tel: 9466187868; E-mail:
Rohilla M (2017) Etiology of Various Dental Developmental Anomalies -Review of Literature. J Dent Probl Solut 4(2): 019-025.10.17352/2394-8418.000042
© 2017 Rohilla M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The development of the tooth involves many complex biological processes, including epithelial- mesenchymal interactions, differentiation, morphogenesis, fibrillogenesis and mineralization. After 37 days of development, a continuous band of thickened epithelium forms around the mouth in presumptive upper and lower jaws from the fusion of separate plates of thickened epithelium–primary epithelial band and gives rise to vestibular lamina and dental lamina .
A series of factors influence the normal development of the occlusion, interfering with the correct alignment of teeth and harmonic relationship with the adjacent and antagonistic elements . The most spectacular period of development of the human body takes place in utero and during this period various disturbances may occur, producing changes which are congenital but not always inherited. The explanation for the tendency of the person to inherit certain features or characteristics from his parents is based upon the monumental principle observations of Mendel, who gave two principles on which the transmission of characteristics was based .
• Principle of dominance
• Principle of segregation
Developmental disturbances of the teeth may manifest by variations in number, position, size, shape, eruption or structure. Such disturbances may occur in association with some more generalized disorder or may occur independently . General as well as local factors may operate to affect the form and structure of the teeth. It may be that only the form is altered or perhaps only the structure. In other instances both are disturbed. Such influences may begin either before or after birth, so that either deciduous or permanent teeth are involved. The treatment plan for the various congenital and hereditary disturbances depends upon the structural, functional and aesthetic requirements and the influencing factors such as the age of the patient, type of dentition, associated abnormalities etc. must be taken into consideration.
The primitive oral cavity or stomodaeum is lined by stratified squamous epithelium called the oral ectoderm. The oral ectoderm contacts the endoderm of the foregut to form the buccopharyngeal membrane. At about the 27th day of gestation this membrane ruptures and the primitive oral cavity establishes a connection with the foregut . The primitive oral band gives rise to two subdivisions, the vestibular lamina and dental lamina. The vestibule forms as a result of proliferation of the vestibular lamina into the ectomesenchyme (Figure 1). Within the dental lamina, continued and localized proliferative activity leads to the formation of a series of epithelial ingrowths into the ectomesenchyme at sites corresponding to the position of future deciduous teeth . The dental lamina serves as the primordium for the ectodermal portion of the deciduous teeth. Later during the development of the jaws, the permanent molars arise directly from a distal extension of the dental lamina .