Petia F Pechalova1*, Nikolai V Pavlov2 and Desislava A Konstantinova3
1Department of Oral surgery, Faculty of dental medicine, Medical University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
2Department of Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Faculty of dental medicine, Medical University, Varna, Bulgaria (PhD student)
3Department of Prosthetic Dental Medicine, Faculty of dental medicine, Medical University, Varna, Bulgaria
Received: 07 March, 2017; Accepted: 21 March, 2017; Published: 23 March, 2017
Petia F Pechalova, Department of Oral surgery, Faculty of dental medicine, Medical University, Plovdiv, “Hristo Botev” Blv. 3, Bulgaria, E-mail:
Pechalova PF, Pavlov NV, Konstantinova DA (2017) Mandibular Third Molars in Southern Bulgaria – A Clinical and Radiological Study of 1518 Patients. J Dent Probl Solut 4(2): 026-030.
© 2017 Pechalova PF, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Mandibular third molars; Impaction; Position; Frequency; Agenesis
The normal eruption time of third molar is after 16 years of age. The impaction rate is higher for third molars when compared with other teeth.
The aim of this study was to evaluate mandibular third molars among southern bulgarians.
The objects of evaluation were 1518 dental patients visited four dental practices in Plovdiv, Bulgaria in the period between May 2013 and May 2016. The presence and position of the left and right mandibular third molar, and the type of performed extraction was investigated (3036 records).
Results: From 1518 patients, 851 were females, 667 were males. The mean age of patients was 45.31 years with a standard deviation of 15.64 years. The largest part of the third mandibular molars were properly erupted - 28.43% /863 teeth/ from all studied teeth. The incidence of impaction of mandibular third molars was 18.74% /569 teeth/. The frequency of semiimpacted mandibular third molars was 7.48% /227 teeth/. From both - impacted and semiimpacted teeth, 46.86% /373 teeth - 245 impacted and 128 semiimpacted/ show mesioangular impaction. The next most frequent position was vertical – 29.4% /234 teeth, from which 178 were impacted, and 56 were semiimpacted/. Horizontal was position of 92 impacted and semiimpacted mandibular third molars /11.56%/, 76 teeth /9.56%/ show distoangular impaction, 15 teeth /1.88%/ were positioned buccolingually, 6 teeth /0.75%/ were classified as other than mentioned position. The frequency of agenesis of the mandibular third molars was 6.69% /203 missing buds/. The cases of standard extraction of mandibular third molars, representing 25.69% /780 teeth/. Surgical removal of mandibular third molars was observed in 12.65% /384 teeth/.
Third molars are the only teeth in the human dentition without strictly specified time for their eruption. The normal eruption time of third molar is after 16 years of age . According Favre ,et al. . Impacted teeth are classically defined as retained in the jaw beyond their normal date of eruption, surrounded by their coronary bag and without communication with the oral cavity. Hashemipour, et al. . Defined tooth impaction as a pathological situation in which a tooth cannot or will not erupt into its normal functioning position.
The aim of this study was to evaluate mandibular third molars.
Material and Methods
The objects of evaluation were 1518 dental patients visited two dental practices in Plovdiv, Bulgaria in the period between May 2013 and May 2016. A clinical, radiographic and questionnaire study was performed. The presence and position of the left and right mandibular third molar, and the type of performed extraction was investigated (3036 records).
Females were 851 patients /56.06%/, 667 patients /43.94%/ were males. The youngest patient included in the study was 17 years old, the oldest - 89 years. The mean age of patients was 45.31 years with a standard deviation of 15.64 years. The distribution of the patients by age groups is presented in Table 1. Most patients are aged between 30 and 39 years /358 patient/, the smallest group is of patients to 19 /44 patients /. T-test and chi 2-test (p> 0.05) showed no statistically significant difference in age distribution between two genders.
The distribution of mandibular third molars in both sides - right and left, is presented in Table 2.
The study showed that the largest part of the third mandibular molars were properly erupted - 448 left /29.51%/ and 425 right /28% /. They represent 28.43% /863 teeth/ from all studied teeth. No statistically significant differences between females and males were observed - the ratio is 1.1: 1 (p> 0.05). The majority of cases of properly erupted mandibular third molars are in patients of fifth and fourth decade of life.
Impacted mandibular third molars represent a large part of all examined teeth – 310 teeth in the right side /20.42%/ and 259 teeth in the left side/17.06%/. The incidence of impaction of mandibular third molars in patients included in our study was 18.74% /569 teeth /. The results clearly show the prevalence at young age, especially in the third and fourth decade (Figure 1). The incidence of impaction decreased significantly in older patients (p <0.05). Female: male ratio was 1.25: 1 (p <0.05).
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