Tawfik A Saleh
Department of Chemistry; King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran31261, Saudi Arabia
Received: 02 December, 2016; Accepted: 23 December, 2016; Published: 28 December, 2016
Tawfik A Saleh, Department of Chemistry; King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran31261, Saudi Arabia, Tel: (966) 13 860 1734; E-mail:
Saleh TA (2016) Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Spectroscopy for Pharmaceutical Determination. Int J Nanomater Nanotechnol Nanomed 2(1): 029-034. DOI: 10.17352/2455-3492.000012
© 2016 Saleh TA. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Nanomaterials; Synthesis; SERS; Drugs
The rapid growth of pharmaceutical industries worldwide demands continuous development of efficient analytical techniques that help not only to detect the presence of the molecules at extremely low concentration levels, but also to detect the structure. Optical spectroscopic techniques are widely used in pharmaceutical development and manufacturing because of their speed and versatility. However, IR and Raman are relatively insensitive. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhances the weak Raman signal, thus, extending the range of available applications. This allows fast, sensitive detection of trace levels of key pharma molecules. However, the use of SERS for analysis requires substrates like silver nanoparticles. In this review, the applications of nano-substrates for SERS will be discussed. The synthesis and fabrication of nanocomposites; such as gold and silver, and nanocomposites will be highlighted. The characterization of the fabricated nanomaterials provide information on structures and properties that could help to improve and control their activity in SERS
One of the main challenges in analytical science and technology is to develop methods that provide unambiguously the chemical nature of the material of interest with the lowest detection limits, no interferences and the shortest acquisition time. Among the promising methods for such purpose is the optical spectroscopy. The most appropriate one is Raman spectroscopy to determine the amount of substances. The Raman Effect occurs when a beam of monochromatic exciting radiation interacts with a sample and scattering occurs. Large portion of this scattered radiation has either the same energy as the incident photons (elastic scattering and known as Rayleigh scattering). A small portion of this scattered radiation (Figure 1) has either higher or lower energy than the incident photons (inelastic scattering) and is known as Raman scattering. Due to light-matter interactions, energy is either gained or lost by the molecule during Raman scattering. This method of characterization can yield narrow, well-resolved vibrational bands which, in essence, provide a “fingerprint” of a given analyte and involve surface processes and interfacial reactions [1,2]. Several methods have been reported for various pharmaceutical compounds analysis [3-9], such as oflaxacin (antibiotic), amlodipine (antihypertensive), chlorpheniramine (antihistamine) and promethazine (antihistamine). However, optical spectroscopic methods attracted more attention over others.