Guy Stéphane Padzys*, Jean Marc Martrette and Marie Trabalon
Département de Biologie, P 943 Franceville/Gabon, Université des Sciences et Techniques de Masuku, France
Received: 28 August, 2015; Accepted: 14 October, 2015; Published: 19 October, 2015
Guy Stéphane Padzys, Département de Biologie, P 943 Franceville/Gabon, Université des Sciences et Techniques de Masuku, France, E-mail:
Padzys GS, Martrette JM, Trabalon M (2015) Impact of Early Nasal Obstruction in Histological Development of and Physiological State. Int J Oral Craniofac Sci 1(2): 034-038. DOI: 10.17352/2455-4634.000007
© 2015 Padzys GS, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Nasal obstruction; Olfactory bulb; Histology; Hormones
Introduction: Nasal obstruction is a risk factor in sleep-disordered breathing with a negative impact on the quality of life in humans.
Objective: In this study we determined whether histological development of olfactory bulb development could be influenced by an early temporary (3 d) nasal obstruction associated with physiological state.
Methods: The rats were killed at specific time points after surgery. Plasma samples were taken for biochemical analyses, and histological measurements were performed. Shortly after nasal obstruction, the volumes of external plexiform (CPE), internal plexiform (CGI), and granule cell (CGr) was measured in both sexes of test rats compared with controls.
Results and Conclusion: Reversible nasal obstruction was further associated with reduced dimensions of the volumes of CPE (male: 55%; female: 37%), CGI (male: 49%; female: 34%) and CGr (male: 70%; female: 47%). Basal corticosterone levels had increased in female rats, however, we observed the lower level of thyroid hormone, especially in male experimental group.
We conclude that a 3-d nasal obstruction period in young rats leads to long-term hormonal changes was associated in modification of histological structural of olfactory bulb.
Nasal obstruction is considered a risk factor in sleep-disordered breathing [1–3], which has a very negative impact on quality of life in children and adults with increased daytime sleepiness . This symptom resembles that of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) caused by episodes of upper airway obstruction leading to episodic hypercapnic hypoxia which alters upper airway muscle structure and fiber type expression . The most common clinical manifestations of OSA are nocturnal snoring, respiratory pauses, restless sleep and mouth breathing . This disturbed breathing is known to produce lethargy, cognitive impairment and sleep impairment, especially in children [7,8]
Chronic nasal obstruction is a non-specific condition observed in many pathological conditions, e.g. rhinitis. Nevertheless, because this disorder is not life threatening (at least in adults) its importance could be underestimated. Impaired nasal breathing results in obligatory oral breathing, which can be divided into two components: chronic absence of active nasal respiration that results in an olfactory deprivation , and chronic mouth opening  Furthermore, in contrast to oral breathing, nasal breathing allows the optimal conditioning of inhaled air, clearing, moistening and warming the air before gas exchange in the lung [11,12].
Obligatory mouth breathing has been observed in human babies and has been associated with a number of conditions that could have both short and long term effects on the physiology and thus behavior of these infants later on in adolescence. Decreases in oxygen saturation and respiratory frequency, with an increase in arousal were observed with nasal occlusion in preterm infants . If untreated oral breathing in children can induce long narrow faces, narrow mouths, high palatal vaults, dental malocclusion, gummy smiles and other effects like skeletal facial profiles. These children do not sleep well at night and this lack of sleep can adversely affect growth and academic performance [8,14].
In other words, it is possible that nasal obstruction causes a loss of the sense of smell and this hyposmia could disrupt the orientation of young rats to the mother, with consequent deprivation of food and feeding. It has been shown in rats that deprivation of food for 3 days causes a diminution in thyroid hormones  associated an increase in stress hormones .
No study has shown the long-term impacts of early nasal obstruction, associated with oral breathing, on development of olfactory bulb in the rat. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of early short-term (3 d) nasal obstruction, associated with oral breathing, on olfactory bulb long term (90 d, adult) impact. Our hypothesis was that nasal obstruction would have a significant effect on olfactory bulb development during the very short period of forced oral breathing. The effect of early nasal obstruction on olfactory bulbs and on hormonal status was also studied. In particular, the stress response and plasma levels of thyroid hormones T3 and thyroxine (T4) were evaluated to determine if these hormones could be implicated in olfactory bulb histology development during early nasal obstruction.
Forty-two male Wistar rats (IFFA-CREDO, France) were used for this experiment. The animals were born in the laboratory from twenty litters, culled to 7 pups per litter to ensure normal body growth. The animals were housed in standard cages under controlled temperature conditions (22 ±1°C). Food and water were available ad libitum throughout the experiment. From birth, the rats were kept on a reversed 12:12 light–dark cycle (dark period 08:00–20:00).
Nasal obstruction procedure
All experiments conformed to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals published by the National Institutes of Health (no. 85-23, revised 1996), the recommendations of the European Community Council for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (no. 86/609/EEC) and the regulations of the University of Nancy 1. All efforts were made to minimise animal suffering. At the age of 8 days (D8), the litters were first anesthetised. Animals were weighed and they were then divided randomly into one control group and one experimental group (oral breathing). Bilateral nasal obstruction, resulting in forced oral breathing, was performed in experimental animals (7 per age) as described previously by Meisami , and Waguespack et al. . The selected method consisted in the cauterisation of the external nostrils, which is the most common and simple procedure allowing spontaneous reopening of nostrils after 4 days. The tissue surrounding the external nostrils was burned by placing a surgical cauterising instrument (1mm in diameter) on the nostrils, consequently occluding the orifice of the nostrils without mechanical or chemical damage to the olfactory mucosa. This procedure induced complete nasal obstruction between D8 and day 11 (D11) with 100% of the nostrils spontaneously reopened by day 15 (D15).
The sampling experiments were conducted during complete nasal obstruction day 9 (D9) and day 11 (D11) and at 90 days after post-reopening of the nostrils, i.e. at the beginning of adulthood (Figure 1). The animals started breathing through their mouths immediately after nasal occlusion, as has been reported in infant 8. Nostril cauterisation earlier in life resulted in rapid death of the pups. In the control group (7 per age), the nostrils were not sealed but the cauterising instrument was placed about 1–2mm above each nostril to burn the skin. After cauterisation, the nostrils were washed with chlortetracycline (Aureomycine Evans 3%) to prevent infection. The pups were warmed (37 °C) for 30mn and returned to their mothers. Exploratory and feeding behaviours of the pups after weaning were the same for both cauterised and control group rat pups suggestive of no serious long term central effects of the treatment, especially in the forced oral breathing group .
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