Yasemin Yavuz*, Omer Cellik, Emrullah Bahsi and Bayram Ince
Dicle University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Diyarbakır, Turkey
Received: 01 December, 2015; Accepted: 22 December, 2015; Published: 24 December, 2015
Dr, Yasemin Yavuz, Dicle University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Diyarbakır, Turkey, Tel: +90(412)2488102; E-mail:
Yavuz Y, Cellik O, Bahsi E, Ince B (2015) The Effect of Ozone Gas on Dentin Shear Bond Strength. Int J Oral Craniofac Sci 1(2): 044-047. DOI: 10.17352/2455-4634.000009
© 2015 Yavuz Y, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Ozone; Shear strength; Composite
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ozone used as cavity disinfectant on dentin bond strength of resin-based restorative material.
Materials and Methods: The study included 36 adult 3rd molar teeth removed for surgical reasons. Each tooth was set in a cylindrical mould 2cm in diameter and 3cm high with the dentin surface parallel to the occlusal level and the roots remaining inside, with the help of autopolymerising acrylic. To obtain a standard smear layer, the teeth were filed. The teeth were randomly separated into 4 groups of 9. Ozone gas was applied to the dentin surfaces for 6 seconds (Prozone W&H, Bürmoos, Austria); Group 1 (single Bond Universal, Z250), Group 2 (ozone + single Bond Universal, Z250), Group 3 (Futurabond M, Grandio) Group 4 (Ozone + Futurabond M, Grandio). A 2mm resin layer was applied and polymerised with an LED light source for 20 secs (Light Emitting Diode-Elipar Freelight, 3M ESPE, Germany). The samples were applied with shear force of 1mm/min to breaking point.
Results: No statistically significant difference was determined between the shear bond strength values of all the groups (p>0.05). No statistically significant difference was determined between the shear bond strength values in the paired comparison of the groups (p>0.05). Adhesive type fractures were determined in the majority of all the groups.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that ozone used for the purpose of disinfection had no negative effect on dentin shear bond strength.
The basic aim in the prevention of dental decay is to reduce the factors creating decay and to increase the protective approaches . Complete elimination cannot be provided of the pathogen bacteria in the dentin to remove the decay lesion. When minimally invasive cavity design is planned to prevent excessive substance loss, this problem becomes more important. Bacteria remaining in the dentin tissue under a restoration may cause secondary decay and pulpal inflammation . After physical removal of the decay lesion, the elimination of bacteria and bacterial by-products is necessary [2,3]. In previous studies, cavity disinfectants, antibacterial restorative materials, laser, light-activated disinfection systems and ozone have been used for this purpose .
Ozone is a strong oxidant with an antimicrobial effect. In the form of gas or in the liquid phase, it has been accepted that it shows an antibacterial effect by affecting the cytoplasmic membrane and cell wall of bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. For many years it has been used in medicine in the treatment of several diseases [1-6]. With the development of ozone-producing generators, ozone gas is now found in dental practices. It has been reported to have been used in cavity disinfection in restorative treatment [7,8]. However, oxidising substances such as ozone have been reported to have a negatve effect on adhesion and prevent monomer polymerisation . The application of ozone, which is a powerful oxidant, before the bonding process has been reported to reduce the bond strength, as has been seen with whitening agents [4,6]. Despite these previous studies, there has not yet been full clarification of the effects of ozone on the dental hard tissue bond of adhesive restorations.
The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of ozone gas on shear bond strength in self-etch adhesive systems.
Material and Methods
The study included 36 adult 3rd molar teeth removed for various reasons. Soft tissue remnants were cleaned from the teeth and left in +4˚C distilled water. Each tooth was set in a cylindrical mould 2cm in diameter and 3cm high with the roots remaining inside with the help of autopolymerising acrylic. To obtain smooth dentin surfaces in the crown, enamel tissue was removed with a diamond burr under water cooling so as to be parallel to the occlusal surface. The exposed dentin surface was then filed in a single direction for 30 seconds under water using 200, 400 then 600 density abrasion strips. Following the abrasion process, a standard smear layer was obtained.
The teeth were randomly separated into 4 groups of 9. Ozone gas produced from a Prozone device (W&H, Bürmoos, Austria) was applied to the dentin surfaces with a corona tip in disinfectant mode for 6 seconds from a distance of 1mm. The following materials prepared in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations were applied to the samples in each group (n=9): Group 1 (single Bond Universal, Z250), Group 2 (Ozone + Single Bond Universal, Z250), Group 3 (Futurabond M, Grandio) Group 4 (Ozone + Futurabond M, Grandio) (Table 1). A 2mm resin layer was applied and polymerized with an LED light source for 20 secs (Light Emitting Diode-Elipar Freelight, 3M ESPE, Germany). After preparation of the samples, they were incubated for 24 hours at 37˚C (Nüve Incubator EN500, Ankara, Turkey). The samples were then placed in an Instron universal test device (Esetron, Turkey) and shear force of 1mm/min was applied to breaking point. The values obtained were recorded as MPa.
In the statistical analysis, results obtained which did not show normal distribution were evaluated with the Kruskal Wallis variance analysis method. In paired comparisons between the groups, the Mann Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction was used as a multiple comparison test.
The fracture types in the failed surfaces formed by the application of shear force, were determined by examination under stereo microscope at x40 magnification.
The median, minimum and maximum shear bond strength values and fracture type percentages are shown in Table 2 and Figure 1. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups in the shear bond strength of the Kruskal-Wallis test results (p>0.05).
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