Xiaoli Li1, Zhenghui Wang2*, Zhuangqun Yang3 and Min Xu1
1Department of Dermatology, The Second Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710004, China
2Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710004, China
3Department of Plastic and Burns Surgery, The First Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China
Received: 04 July, 2015; Accepted: 24 August, 2015; Published: 26 August, 2015
Zhenghui Wang, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710004, China, Tel: +86 029 87679866; Fax: +86 029 87678421; Email:
Li X, Wang Z, Yang Z, Xu M (2015) A Cephalometric Analysis of Hemifacial Microsomia. Arch Otolaryngol Rhinol 1(1): 028-033. DOI: 10.17352/2455-1759.000005
© 2015 Li X, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Hemifacial microsomia; Cephalometric analysis
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to analyze the facial asymmetry systematically using the cephalometric method, so as to demonstrate the difference on both sides of Hemifacial microsomia(HFM) in adult.
Study Design: Twelve adults of HFM were chosen, and the muscles and velocity of conduction of facial nerve were measured using the electromyographic machine. We collected all the patients' cephalometric radiographs in the anterior and posterior projections and analysed the size and symmetry of orbit, maxilla and mandible.
Results: We found the dysfunction of muscles and facial nerves on the affected side of HFM. The main differences on both sides were the mandible and the changes in the orbit, but the maxilla had no significant difference.
Conclusion: The quantitative analysis supports the objective data for clinic and the hard tissues and soft tissues must be considered in order to help with the treatment of HFM.
Hemifacial microsomia, or HFM, is the most frequently encountered form of isolated facial asymmetry [11. Moore KL, Persaud TV (1993) Before we are born: Essentials of embryology and birth defects. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders 118.,22. Dimitroulis G, Dolwick MF, Van Sickels JE (1994) Orthognathic surgery: A synopsis of basic principles and surgical techniques. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann 78.]. Affecting approximately one in 5,000 births and ranking second only to cleft lip and palate among the most common facial anomalies, HFM is a congenital malformation in which there is a deficiency in the amount of hard and soft tissues on one side of the face (Figure 1), [33. Berry G (1989) Note on congenital defect (coloboma) of the lower lid. Lond Ophthalmol Hosp Rep 12: 255.,44. Branchial arch and orofacial disorders. (1990) In: Gorlin RJ, Cohen MM Jr., Levin LS, eds. Syndromes of the head and neck. New York: Oxford University Press 641-652.]. It is a primary syndrome of the first bronchial arch, involving underdevelopment of the temporomandibular joint, mandibular ramus, mastication muscles and the ear. The disorder may be from mild to severe; involvement limited to one side is most common, but bilateral involvement also occurs with more severe expression on one side. The condition overlaps with Goldenhar syndrome [55. Gorlin RJ, Cohen MM, Levin LS (1990) Syndromes of the Head and Neck. Oxford: Oxford University Press 666–673.]. A wide spectrum of abnormalities have been described, and many terms used to designate the condition emphasize the nosologic problems encountered trying to establish rigid diagnostic criteria [66. Cohen MM Jr (1995) Perspectives on craniofacial asymmetry. IV. Hemi-asymmetries. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 24: 134–141.-88. Cohen MM Jr., Rollnick BR, Kaye CI (1989) Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum: an updated critique. Cleft Palate J 26: 276–286.]. The causes of HFM (oculoauriculovertebral spectrum) are unknown. Clinical and genetic evidence to date strongly suggests that the condition is etiologically heterogeneous [88. Cohen MM Jr., Rollnick BR, Kaye CI (1989) Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum: an updated critique. Cleft Palate J 26: 276–286.].