Open Access Case Study Article ID: ADA-4-134

    A cacophony of cytokines explains the biopsychosocial interaction model of mental and physical disease

    James A Morris

    Social, psychological and biological factors interact to cause both mental and physical disease.

    Chronic low grade infl ammation is a risk factor for many conditions including atherosclerosis and its

    complications, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity and depression. The infl ammatory response is designed

    to protect against pathogenic micro-organisms but in the process some damage to our own tissues

    is inevitable. The process is complicated and is orchestrated by cytokines (intercellular messengers).

    Adaptive physiological responses to the many stresses of everyday life are also orchestrated by cytokines.

    The responses are nuanced and each variation involves a different specifi c tune. But if the response to

    stress runs at the same time as the infl ammatory response there will be a cacophony. The infl ammatory

    response will be sub-optimal increasing tissue damage and the physiological response to stress will be

    sub-optimal converting normal emotions into pathological mental states. Sleep, pregnancy and appetite

    control are also complex physiological states orchestrated by cytokines. They will be sub-optimal in

    the presence of chronic infl ammation. Infl ammation can be overt as in dental caries and periodontitis,

    or covert as in the carriage of bacterial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus within an epithelial

    surface. We must seek to modify the bacterial fl ora in order to prevent disease. It is suggested that the

    natural substance with most potential for achieving this aim is yoghurt.


    Published on: Oct 23, 2018 Pages: 56-64

    Full Text PDF Full Text HTML DOI: 10.17352/2455-5460.000034
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