Background: Autonomic nerve innervation pathway from the ventricular GP to the pulmonary veins (PV) remains unclear.
Aim: This study investigates the autonomic innervations from aortic root ventricular GP to the PVs. Nissl’s staining and fluorescent dual label staining were performed to determine the neuron structure in the aortic root GP in five dogs. Avidin Biotin Complex (ABC) staining were performed to study the efferent autonomic pathway from the aortic root GP to the PVs.
Results: Adrenergic and cholinergic neurons were both present in the aortic root GP, with the majorities were cholinergic. ABC positive nerve fibers that contained both cholinergic and adrenergic neurotransmitters penetrated directly from the aortic root GP to the left PVs.
Conclusion: Autonomic innervation of the Left PVs is partly originated from the aortic root ventricular GP.
Published on: Oct 17, 2015 Pages: 21-25
Domenico Antonio Restivo
Nuovo Garibaldi Hospital, Italy
Journal of Neurology, Neurological Science and Disorders
CHA University, Republic of Korea
International Journal of Immunotherapy and Cancer Research
University of Genoa, Italy
Global Journal of Allergy
Peter Lloyd Nara
Private Compnay- Biological Mimetics, Inc., USA
Annals of Antivirals and Antiretrovirals
Vingolo Enzo Maria
Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Journal of Clinical Research and Ophthalmology