Diabetes mellitus (DM) or better known as simply diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases in which high blood sugar levels are maintained over a prolonged period. Long term complications include but not limited to heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, and ocular damage. There are two main types of diabetes: Type I (T1DM) and Type II (T2DM). In 2013, an estimated 382 million people were diagnosed with diabetes with type 2 accounting for 90% of the cases. Unfortunately, to date, despite significant amount of research there is no known cure except in very specific cases.
DM was one of the first diseases described , with the first described cases believed to be T1DM. Originally, the disease was classified as “madhumeha” or “honey urine”, and was noted that urine attracts ants. The term diabetes was first used in 230 BCE and was considered as a rare disease. T1DM and T2DM were described and identified in 400-500 by Sushruta and Charaka , who associated T1DM with youth and T2DM with being overweight . Today we know that T1DM is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas [2,3]. T2DM, on the other hand, is known for insulin resistance and it is the more common of the two [4,5].
Published on: Dec 10, 2015 Pages: 65-66