In recent scenario, fl uorosis is now going to be a severe problem throughout the globe due to toxic effects of fl uoride (F) on both plants and animals. F presents in the halogenated group of the periodic table and has the characteristics of electronegativity. Natural geological sources and increased industrialization have contributed greatly to the increasing incidence of fl uoride-induced human and animal health issues. In animals and human beings, it exerts adverse effects mainly through the attenuation of antioxidant defense mechanism and chelation of enzymatic cofactors. Thereafter, it causes metabolic disorders through interacting with various cellular processes such as gene expression, cell cycle, metabolism, ion transport, hormonal secretion, endocytosis, apoptosis, necrosis, and oxidative stress. These effects lead to dental mottling, skeletal dysfunctions including crippling deformities, osteoporosis, and other vital organs dysfunction. It was found that, water is the main source of fl uoride intake to plants and animals, which further may go into food chain of human beings through consumption of high fl uoride content plant and animal origin food. Several preventive and control measures have been developed to ameliorate the fl uoride toxicity, like application of synthetic chemicals, plants bioactive molecules, and plant products like fruit pulp, seed mixture, and plant buckle products. Therefore, this article presents up-to-date information on the fl uoride sources, toxicity and different amelioration measures to reduce fl uoride level directly from water as well as application of different natural/synthetic products/molecules to ameliorate the toxic effects of fl uoride in in-vivo models.
Published on: Jan 21, 2017 Pages: 21-32