Hepatic hydrothorax (HH), variceal haemorrhage (VH) and portal vein thrombosis (PVT) are complications associated with hepatic cirrhosis (HC) and involve poor prognosis.
HH occurs in 4%-17% of cirrhotic patients . Atypical presentations include pleural effusion without ascites and left-sided only effusions. The pathophysiology is believed to involve defects in tendinous diaphragmatic portion. Usual treatment includes diuretics and thoracocentesis, and even transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and liver transplantation . Among patients with cirrhosis, due to portal hypertension (PH), varices form quite frequently (10% a year, approximately), and about a third of patients with varices will develop VH. PVT is commonly developed in cirrhosis (ultrasonography studies have reported prevalence of 5 to 24 per cent), and is related to unbalanced haemostasis and slowing of portal flow.
Published on: Dec 18, 2014 Pages: 2-3
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