ISSN: 2455-5479
Archives of Community Medicine and Public Health
Case Report       Open Access      Peer-Reviewed

Public Policies of Infamy: Four Cases in Health - Mexico

Donovan Casas Patiño1*, Alejandra Rodríguez Torres2 and Mario Rodolfo Salazar Morales3

1Postdoctor in Social Anthropology, Doctor in Collective Health Sciences, Masters in Population and Health, Family Medicine & General practitioner/ specialist surgeon. Professor of the Autonomous University of the State of Mexico campus of the University Center Amecameca teacher in the postgraduate of Sociology of Health and Nutrition, is a researcher of the transdisciplinary area applied to health. Leader of the academic body: human nutrition, education and collective health, Mexico
2University Autonomous of the State of Mexico Centro Universitario Amecameca; Medical family in the UMF 78 IMSS Amecameca, Mexico
3Faculty of medicine, University of San Carlos of Guatemala, Guatemala, Mexico
*Corresponding author: Donovan Casas Patiño, Postdoctor in Social Anthropology, Doctor in Collective Health Sciences, Masters in Population and Health, Family Medicine & General practitioner/ specialist surgeon. Professor of the Autonomous University of the State of Mexico campus of the University Center Amecameca teacher in the postgraduate of Sociology of Health and Nutrition, is a researcher of the transdisciplinary area applied to health. Leader of the academic body: human nutrition, education and collective health, Mexico, E-mail:
Received: 06 January, 2017 | Accepted: 16 March, 2017 | Published: 17 March, 2017
Keywords: Public policies in health; maternal mortality; Homicide; Noncommunicable diseases and ecocide

Cite this as

Patiño DC, Torres AR, Salazar Morales MR (2017) Public Policies of Infamy: Four Cases in Health - Mexico. Arch Community Med Public Health 3(1): 017-023. DOI: 10.17352/2455-5479.000020


The policy is an activity-oriented ideological form a group decision-making to achieve certain objectives. Public policy is the representation of Government by which society is governed involves different processes and levels of expression, for regular, systematized, regulated, organize, sort, etc.; This is for the pursuit of the common good in relation to the groups in the same territorial area.

Of this way, it shows in political public of a country, should denote the grade of progress of their citizens concerning their rights human, which are part of the warranty legal universal that protects to individuals and collective against actions that hinder them freedoms fundamental and affect the dignity human.

Now, in a never-ending story of episodes of misfortune, can say, that not all policy is for the benefit of the individual, is enough to show that you one of the fundamental human rights: freedom of transit, in the case of Mexico, this right is kidnapped. Just walk the beaches to be invited to evict them from the safety of private consortia, which offer unforgettable holidays, fun, adventure, nature without limits and care guaranteed by locals of the area; which have been delegated by decades to miserable cities with few public services, which gives displays of social inequity and impediment of these spaces for which they were created.

So Mexico health policy is established as part of the social sector, which not only deals with a distributive justice in services or benefits, but it also tries to maximize the term of health for everyone through State structures and complex organizations that establish a health care model according to the current of political thought of the moment , based in a Plan national of development of where is follows the Plan sectoral in health [1], and starting from this planning is will allow orient them policies and programs of the Government.

Of this way is know several mechanisms by which is can grant this distribution: reduction of the inequality in health, favor to them people that it deserve, front those that not, depending on styles of life-where them factors of determination social of the health influence of way direct or indirect- and extend the health to a time of constant in the life of them collective , but this is forgotten to sticking to the reality of the collective, where more than 26 million people live the high urban marginalization [2], lack of health where a popular insurance limited actions and also corrupt [3], tries to alleviate accumulated misfortunes, an education which reform has been deception, fraud and social polarization [4], and coupled with to it previous a violence social that goes to the stands, where the hope is vanishing, so the planning in political public not exists in the context real Mexican.

In that sense there are organizations policy international that is responsible of constitute, lead and endorse them political in health in a frame universal, so the World Health Organization [WHO] created in 1948 is the organ maximum regulatory in this precept, and is the arm long of the Organization of them Nations United [UN], this structure monitors them reins international in health of all them continents supporting and ensuring in them countries availability of them services of health focused in the persons of an integrated and equitable manner, as well as provide services and drugs at an affordable price, as stated in its Constitution [5].

In wrong way to what is proposes this body international, in Mexico in his article first and second of it letter Magna and their guarantees declares that the conditions of it health must attend to all them citizens regardless of their origin ethnic, gender or age or any another that follow you against it dignity human [6].

Today, the policy of the State on this area is changing according to mediate social space and the ideological current of the power of the moment. There is thus a multi-faceted Health Organization and fragmented [7] and that political decisions in health depend on: people with public accountability, social sensitivity, knowledge of the area, political attitude to social need and ideology of the ruling political party. Thus players that make up the factual structures of the State, whose mission is to promote and protect citizens ‘ rights, end up increasing the inoperative gaps in regulation, implementation, monitoring and formulation of public policy on health, creating a lie between social structure and coverage of need.

Is public knowledge that the crisis facing the sector health in Mexico, is legacy, among many other edges of existence for many years of corruption by public officials in health [8,9], protected by the Government prevailing that in the interests of ratify his power categorical desquebrajaron to the system same in prejudice of an element basic of welfare of the humanity, the search of your health.

Examining the Mexican health system in their processes of extension of health, invites to think about relationships that occur between individuals, groups, medical associations, academia, and public policies in health, and thus not have a skewed view of reality, in that tenor the Mexican health system is currently composed by a chapter of permanent pathologies : theft [10], looting [11], eternal hegemony of managerial, authoritarianism, agony with loss of direction and lack of self-criticism, there is a transdisciplinary process look health/disease/care, is preserving and perpetuating a dual discourse, which politically seeks health collective that article 4 of the Constitution of the Mexican Constitution, which marks that “everyone has the right to protection of health” [6], and on the other hand, seeks not to have a policy of inclusive social course, where each and every one of the social elements are part of the very act of living, this way we will examine four basic sections of the social pathology of the current Mexico.

Maternal mortality

The first case of infamy in health, show him the figures of women giving birth in the yard or baths of hospitals (Figures 1,2) [12-14]. These are scenes every day and little recognized, where the complication of the delivery or your attention improper condition the death. In 2014 who gave figures concerning the abatement of the mortality maternal in America Latin and the Caribbean (Table 1).

According to the plan objectives of development of the Millennium (MDG-5) (Nations United, 2015). In Mexico is perpetuated with a mortality of 38.2 to 49 States the National Observatory of Maternal Mortality [15] and the World Health Organization [16,17], despite dialogue, design and policy implementation in the Government public agenda. The way of dying from a natural fact as it is pregnancy, has become a social stigma of death. There is evidence clear that the Association of them factors of determination social negative-economy, power, biological, logistics of the service of health, political, education, environment, etc.-is obtained as result in joint death maternal [18].

Thus public policies for the resolution of this problem have consisted of basically resources of source medical to limiting the provision of service to the biomedical attention, without trying to fight through the political health to all social determining factors that set this doom, but we continue with the construction of maternity hospitals, capacitemos to more doctors and nurses in obstetric Gynecology area the maelstrom of maternal death will not be extinguished.


The second case, is displayed through a disease social that is has embedded within our lives; This has been omitted and negated by the same system in order to create transience of its sickly, giving rise to a myriad of social problems which have transmitted chronicity, pain, regret, tears, betrayal, corruption and oblivion. This evil is inoculated, are transmitted, and now is perpetual the violence. This is presented as the last resort of a society in order to obtain control, whether it is economic, political or social, that at many times is the result of revenge, territorial arrangements, collection of squares or loyalty.

A representation of violence is the: killing intentional, which makes its appearance as the actor main “attack against a people”. This has conditioned among many other effects, a climate of insecurity and hostility social that to level macro is equivalent to absence of investment of capital overseas as well as destabilizing political [19]. To level meso them structures factual have been to merced of null income economic by political liberal that prevent play its role protective of State and also are abducted by groups of the crime organized [20]. Micro-level family structure that seems to present bankruptcy social [21] and the individual, as a result, is apart from the aftermath of the crimes that are perpetuated within social structures desagarradas by crime and impunity [22]. In that sense, the violence beyond the limits of the Act itself, haunt the collective to a life full of horror, humiliations and coaptation of liberty (Figures 3,4).

It is noteworthy that it is violence is focused on certain areas of the country such as: Guerrero, Michoacán, Chihuahua, Sinaloa, Durango, Nayarit [24], but ultimately not can isolate from the General conditions of the country without losing an approach to holistic and critic, this analysis not should decide solely with numbers in raw data of which the State is based, there must be a transformation towards relative values where the possibility of 100 dead on one side against 10 other not you hereby the fact factual existence of one malicious entity of one side or the other of the country, this corresponds to the same phenomenon of fatal conclusion, where homicide analysis is an essential part of the overall outcome of an ineptitude of the law enforcement systems.

In America, Honduras leads this ranking with a rate of 90, followed by of Venezuela with 54, Belize with 45, El Salvador with 41, Guatemala with 40, Jamaica with 39, Colombia with 31, Bahamas with 30, Trinidad and Tobago with 28, Brazil with 25 and Mexico with 34 [25-27], this social epidemic is weakening fibers stronger society, social trust to the axis of State power which has failed its citizens, in this way we are all observers of marches multidinarias seeking to raise awareness among States of the existence of violence as between destroyer groups, this violence has no clear boundaries, or creeds or much less religion, the world is witness of this so unusual test full of cruelty and misfortune.

So the violence is priority national this is recomposes of factors social that determined by ended a space, with rules and territorito conducive to expend is, perpetuate is and play is, is time that this epidemic is considered a problem social and of health public, since them consequences factual of death in them collective are visible, is time that is leave of create an object of violence incorporeal to translate it into a reality that should meet urgently, many more dead are needed in this area to understand that this problem is social and public health?, violence prevention should be at this political moment of national priority.

Diseases chronic non-communicable

Them diseases chronic non communicable (CNCD) are defined as those entities pathological that are of long duration, of extension continuous what submits to a chronicity usually slow, what causes drown, pain, suffering, pain, sadness and abandonment, by which is considered the greater challenge of the XXI [28]. This same material advises that in this entity pathological is flock 4 entities of great magnitude: diseases cardiovascular (e.g., them infarcts of myocardial or accidents stroke), cancer, diseases respiratory chronic (e.g., the lung obstructive chronic or the asthma) and diabetes. These have become pathologies with a great challenge for all the world’s health systems, by several factors, including: the large number of affected cases, its increasing contribution to the overall mortality, forming the most frequent cause of premature disability and high cost of treatment. They represent the cause of more death in the world (63%) being the most affected countries low- and 80% [28-30].

The great majority of them countries have manifested epidemiologically a boost of them CNCDS in them years recent. What previously were infectious or diseases of poor accessibility to health services, they were modified by social development groups, which prompted to the continued progress of CNCD. Overweight and obesity are added these pathologies and in turn the exponencian expense to the groups.

Currently Mexico has a population of 121 million of inhabitants. It is estimated that of this population, the CNCD are the cause of 77% of the total number of deaths (605 thousand annually). The probability of dying between them 30 and them 70 years due to the CNCD main of the 16% [28]. Unlike United States of North America according to this article is that it has a population of 318 million, estimated that the CNCD are the cause of 88% of the total number of deaths (2 656 000 a year). The probability of dying between 30 and 70 years due to major CNCDS of 14%. By way of comparison, in Brazil for example, with a population of 199 million, it is estimated that CNCDS are the cause of 74% of the total number of deaths (annual 1,318, 000), with a probability of dying between 30 and 70 years due to major CNCDS of 19% [28].

The CNCD are part of a conglomerate of suffering world which requires to look others axes of domination. In Mexico the diabetes cost 1, 974 million dollars during the year 2000 [31] and the 2013 data reported that it exceeded the 7, 784 million dollars [32]. With this can give us an idea of the magnitude unbridled in the use of drugs that with the axis hegemonic scientist, have motivated in them collective to the dependence of requirements pharmacological, falling in it polypharmacy (use of more than five medications).

CNCDS are an economic indicator of pharmaceutical interest of free gain, so these diseases in the world are daily part of day to day, where the symptoms and signs of these diseases reference determine the continuation of a diagnosis and treatment, which, under the gaze of the hegemonic in the health system, whether private or public, indicators which in turn originates build economic data of each disease.

In this sense every CNCDS pathology must have a long-term investment-economic indicator, since they are persistent and also seems that among more disease, pathogenesis, suffering and shame, the health budget will generate more profits from commercial well. Prevention, which could save millions of dollars and years of collective, would not pay for neo-liberal States, these same are that generate imaginary built through the same suffering to tame even more to suffer. At this time, it is easier to diagnose a sick person to a healthy person.


The fourth element of analysis, other ecocide occurred in Cancun Riviera in the lagoon Tajamar [of manifolds that can be mention], 100 thousand hectares were devastated for the expansion of tourism development and other projects supported by FONATUR (tourism development) and permitted by the SEMARNAT (Secretariat of environment and natural resources): mangrove, savanna, lowland, low tropical deciduous and secondary destroyed (Figures 5,6). “” The Government justification:... “this complex will employ the zone of Cancun [33] and the enterprise...” “Is a disappointment that is difficult to invest in Mexico with a State of law so fragile” [34]. While this environment is protected by laws national e international, was devastated by an interest particular, where investors European, Asian, North American and national, used the capital as to using them own institutions State for this purpose. Mexico has two allegations one international that is proclaims in favor of the combat of the change climate away the Organization of the 13 Conference of them parts (COP13-2016) [26], of the Convention on the diversity biological of the Organization of them Nations United (UN) with headquarters likely in them Cabos, low California South [35], and the Ortho allegation, is that are witnesses of the control political blurred by a well commercial global , where is gone irreparably the ideology of the well common in an alley of fear and forget.

Mexico has become the waiters, bartenders, garroteros, maids and entertainers from Beach, large resorts neo-Liberals, which is worth mentioning, that nothing of this great tourism benefits from directly or indirectly to the locals and much less to the ecosystem. All these posts labour are under the domain of the “outsourcing”, a subcontracting by an intermediary leaving without rights labour, without antique without right to benefits of law and low conditions labor precarious and salaries not worthy, what conditions collective dissatisfied.

Reasons practices among health and political

The issue health and environment, in an interconnect that many would pull overboard, but to take it as a practical reason for life itself becomes in amazement and analysis, it is so, that the four acts mentioned in advance are part of infamy in health that is associated directly or indirectly with public policy, and whose State shares are combat damage, but not in a social preventive Act, thus is drawn surroundings mixed of shame and social unrest, finished the course in this overall health so, written acts and many realities.

It is worthwhile to clarify that there are practical solutions to these infamies: firstly, if public services are improved not only in health but in transport (safety, readiness, accessibility of routes and schedules) avoid disorders such as stress, depression, road trip, family breakdown, respiratory diseases by pollution from motor vehicles, among others. in a second time, if the economic conditions of the employee are improved and workers generate decent jobs, in a direct way in active and pensioned would improve immediately accessibility real food in frequency, consumption, and quality as dictates it the Mexican constitutional 4th article: “access to a nutritious diet and quality” [6], thus avoiding malnutrition (malnutrition States (obesity) or excessive feeding (metabolic syndrome: obesity, diabetes, heart disorders); in a third time, the ban immediate of food transgenic which are bathed with pesticides, this would decrease to the cancer in the great majority of their presentations [36], in a four time, the diet is must reconstitute as axis essential of all collective, towards a security food by consumption ideal, and not what happens currently with them minisalarios approved by the Secretariat of Hacienda and credit public, Commission national of wages minimum and the camera of the legislative that in collusion increased the wage minium 2.81 pesos (.21 cents of dollar); what amounts to a piece of bread, or an egg or ten tortillas [37], “while members were granted an increase of aguinaldo to receive 90 days of Christmas bonus, by Decree of... themselves!” [38], this condition is equivalent to the economy is proportionately responsible of a power proper of a collective, where the class political lives to coast of the suffering of a people.

A fifth element, if the environmental conditions of the cities improve respiratory problems (respiratory chronic pulmonary disease, Lung Cancer, asthma, rhinitis chronic, chemical bronchitis) would develop a downward trend. So in an indirect way is improve the micro-environment with global repercussions for the benefit not only of the town but in the world, if an education that promotes healthy lifestyles are promoted social power will start a radical change of empowerment of health as wellness option. In a sixth time, if improve it security public is may make use of them spaces and squares public as well as of areas of recreation natural and conservation of species of way self-sustaining, since in Mexico is more easy die of an act violent that of a disease, the hopelessness and ignorance of it daily is by all sides of the country , all is regarded as finished, lost or desolate, all looking for solutions in a State failed; Mexico lives at the mercy of arrogant, treacherous, Liars, premeditated, corrupt and ignorant of the reality of the country leaders. All the political general that made is between lawsuits of parties political, agandalles electioneering, award of goods common and discussions of budgets infinite for those political that are in sponsorship with the power, thus it infamy in health is dam of them taught political that transform to a collective.


The example of Mexico is an archetype of political fragmentation in which the political vision applied by public entities fails to interact with different social areas such as health, the environment and society and the result is perceptible throughout the country as violence, degradation and lack of social commitment.

The reality is not unique in the country and as you can see, it can be the reality of another country on a smaller or larger scale from another latitude on the planet, in this country the passage of days is more complicated and with the passage of the Years and political parties, common sense is co-opted by the state and corrosive means, which end up drowning its collective. The common sense of the collective is what reflects the predominant reality of the social phenomenon in its own dynamics is what gives inconsistent perspectives of the official political discourse, where morbidity and mortality prevails in Mexico, since we continue in a country without adequate social direction Inclusive, following neoliberal policies from abroad. Our leaders continue taking over the resources of this country, protected by corrupt political parties, which also inherited power and commitments among their own relatives and supporters; What do with so many poor without right to eat, without security, without education, without services of health, without a future and without strategy Basic?, of this way is the step to the origin of ghosts in the oblivion of a Mexico not inclusive.

Politics and absence of social commitment, is what abounds in this country of shame, where commercial power has established state networks, now the interests of capital are active to protect part of the whole state apparatus, giving investment conditions, generating more capital Through the neoliberal looting, thus the Expenditure of any social investment does not exist, so that the country goes through a complete social failure, where the tissue fragments in the middle of a downed Mexico, where in addition our best commercial bidder, closes the Borders to drown us even more in this agony. The transdisciplinary resolution of the total problem, derived from a congruence of social participation, all sectors must work together, so all the infamy in health must be analyzed and work for its eradication, this will serve to show the world that groups are part Of universal existence. No more walls and bigger bridges, understanding that we are all planetary, not flags.


There is a high rate of non-adherence among hypertensive patients attending tertiary care centers in the South East. Measures targeted towards improving adherence like information on the benefits of medication adherence and modalities of coping with disabilities should be developed for these centers. There is also the need to involve mental health practitioners in the care of such patients.

To all those who seek a better world. No more walls and greater bridges of planetary understanding.

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